INDEPENDENCE DAY SPECIALS: FULL TEXT OF THE PRESIDENT’S SPEECH.

BROADCAST BY PRESIDENT MUHAMMADU BUHARI ON OCTOBER 1ST, 2017

My dear Nigerians,

October 1st remains a special date for all Nigerians as this marks the day when we attained one of the most precious of human desires — freedom. Over the years the country has gone through trials and tribulations, but October 1 st is always a day for celebrations. It is a day for thanks giving , reflection and re – dedication .

It is also a day for remembrance. We should remind ourselves of the recent journey from 1999 – 2015 , when our country happily returned to democratic rule. However , in spite of oil prices being an average of $ 100 per barrel and about 2 . 1 m barrels a day, that great piece of luck was squandered and the country ’s social and physical infrastructure neglected . We were left with no savings and huge infrastructure deficit .

The APC Government’ s Campaign rallying cry to restore security, re – balance the economy and fight corruption was not all rhetoric. The country must first be secured . The economy must be re -balanced so that we do not depend on oil alone . We must fight corruption which is Nigeria ’s Number One Enemy. Our Administration is tackling these tasks in earnest.

In the past two years, Nigeria has recorded appreciable gains in political freedom . A political Party at the Centre losing elections of State Governor, National Assembly seat and even State Assemblies to the opposition parties is new to Nigeria . Added to these are complete freedom to associate , to hold and disseminate opinions. Such developments clearly attest to the country ’s
growing political development . But like all freedoms , this is open to abuse .

Recent calls on re – structuring , quite proper in a legitimate debate, has let in highly irresponsible groups to call for dismemberment of the country. We can not and we will not allow such advocacy.

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INDEPENDENCE DAY SPECIALS: THE CHRONICLE OF BRITISH EXPEDITIONS IN NIGERIA. (III)

THE NORTHERN EXPEDITION: How the North fell.

Regularly, the British expeditions often starts from a water based area. The North wasn’t an exception. Lokoja (in the present day Kogi) was the start point in 1867. As usual, a consulate was established.

The British interest in the trade of along the Niger, the United African Company (UAC) was established in 1879 perhaps to gain a united font over other rivals (French and German explorers) within the region. The UAC later became N.A.C (National African Company) in 1881.

Having successfully created trading stations all over the waterways across the region (Onitsha, Asaba, Idah, Aboh) and creating a rapport with the Emirs in the North, the British took steps to dominate. The dreams came through in 1885 (British conference).

The N.A.C soon became R.N.C (The Royal Niger Company Chartered and Limited). RNC controlled the trading matters along the coast while every respective Emir manned his territory according to the statement of the treaties in smooth partnership. This was why the later Indirect rule system was successful in the region.

The rift only started when some Emirs (especially the Emir of Nupe) began to raise questions as to the conduct of the company in determining who comes into their country/Emirate. They felt they practically have no say concerning their territorial boundary laws.

Due to the pressure from the other rivals as they plan to hijack the territory from her, the company wasn’t ready to give in to the agitations of the locals. He therefore planned to silence the agitation for once and all.

In 1897, it ordered a military expedition into Nupe and Ilorin. The success of it gave it more strength to further occupy the rest if the Northern territory.

However, the pressure from outside kept increasing and thus it became clear to the British government that the hold of her territory in the Northern Emirates cannot be left in the hands of a ‘company’. British then financed a military force officered by the British army under the capable hands of Lord Frederick Lugard to dominate the RNC.

It then established its headquarters in Jebba as the West African Frontier Force. So that by January 1, 1900, upon revocation of the Company’s charter (of 1886), the government assumes direct and total control of all the Company’s territories.

Thus, the Union Jack was hoisted at Lokoja by Lugard and every Emirate automatically falls under his leadership. Though, majority of the local Emirate authorities do not know about this until later. He then became the first High Commissioner of the acquired territories.

As usual, the process didn’t go so smooth. There were resistance by local authorities at initials. Especially in Keffi, Kano and Sokoto where a certain Captain Moloney was beheaded by a Chief in Keffi; took cover in Kano and was supported by Sokoto. But as always, all of the Emirate forces put together was not too big for the British Army to handle.

Frederick Lugard continued leadership in the territories along the coast (Southern and Northern axis) discreetly until 1914. Reportedly, the now Nigeria (from the words ‘Niger area’) was amalgamated for ease of administration and trade relations.

In subsequent research, we shall look into Lord Lugard’s role in the formation of the New Nigeria. Anticipate…

Happy Independence day to all Nigerians. In case you missed the President’s Independence Day speech earlier this morning, here is the full script:

https://muzzammilwrites.wordpress.com/2017/10/02/independence-day-specials-full-text-of-the-presidents-speech/

Enjoy your holidays.

Edited and Published on Muzzammilwrites.

Muzzammilwrites Initiatives.
01-10-2017.

INDEPENDENCE DAY SPECIALS: THE CHRONICLE OF BRITISH EXPEDITIONS IN NIGERIA (II).

THE NIGER-DELTA/BIAFRA EXPEDITION: How the rest of the South was conquered.

Although Lagos was the first place the British conquered, it appeared that there was also a concomitant push going on in the South South of what is today called ‘Nigeria’ as at the same time when Lagos was been bombarded. The interference also came as an impact of the British military (Navy) presence in the Niger-Delta area.

Thus: in order to practically abolish slave trade, British warships patrolled the West African coastline in 1807. The military passed a Slave Trade Abolition Act but up until 1836, when they employed the use of real force, Bonny was still a great dealer in slave trade through the coast.

To stop them,the British Navy initiated a clean operation which of course met resistance from the then King of Bonny, Alali. Alali arrested the Captain of the British Warship (liet. Tyron) and his troop in a bid to counter react.

Apparently, the move didnt end well for the Bonny Camp. British relaunched a tougher operation into Bonny with more warships. At the longrun, Bonny had to surrender and was made to sign a treaty of ensuring the safety of European lives and property within the coast. Because Alali later flaunted the agreement in 1837, the British Military toppled his rulership and installed a new King: W.D Pepple, a native who was practically an ally to the Europeans. This laid a solid ground for the British to ride on.

The military then made use of the opportunity to fully interfere in the local politics and administration of the region. In 1849, a consul (John Beecroft) for Bights of Biafra and Benin which covers the entire coastline of Nigerian area, was appointed to ensure the security and safety of lives and property of the British traders operating in the area.

It was during Beecroft’s 6 yr reign that Lagos was penetrated through the coastline in 1851. Itsekiri and Calabar was also bombarded and penetrated. By 1880, British were the most dominating European power in the Niger-Delta coast having penetrate every area in the south (South east inclusive). So that by 1885, after the Berlin Conference (84-85), other European powers in contest will have no choice but to officially concede the region to her total control.

King Jaja of Opobo.

The British military forged on. However, the mission of dominance and control never came so easy in some region like Opobo and Itsekiri were King Jaja and Nana respectively threw up notable resistance. Unlike the other Southern territories, Benin isnt close to or on the coast. But it got penetrated as well. This shows further shows the super strength of the British military as compared to the locals of that time. Though it took time before the British could occupy Benin because of its distance from the shore. In 1892, the British consulate first stepped into the territory in an attempt to solve a teeming societal conflict.

Complains have reached them in Bonny about how the Oba of Benin (Ovonramwen) was maltreating and imposing heavy terms and conditions on the neighbouring Itsekiri traders in an attempt to monopolise trade. The consulate sees this as a threat to business so it made approach to the King. They offered him a treaty of protection to control the situation which he (Oba) signed. But as usual, like every other African ruler, he failed to abide. So the Consul reacted fully by interfering and eventually took control of the territory.

Oba Ovonramwen initially formed a resistance but it was nothing to big for the British army to handle. On August 1897, Ovonramwen surrendered and was later exiled into Calabar before he died in 1914.

Thanks for reading. You can share and also invite your friends to benefit from these blog too. Together; we will learn and build. Don’t forget to visit tomorrow as well.

TO OUR NIGERIAN READERS: HAPPY INDEPENDENCE DAY IN ADVANCE

Edited and Published on Muzzammilwrites.

30-09-2017.

INDEPENDENCE DAY SPECIALS: THE CHRONICLES OF THE BRITISH EXPEDITIONS IN NIGERIA [I].

In 1862, shortly after the abolition of slave trade off the Atlantic coast of Lagos and after gaining full dominance, in the order that they wade off potential hijackers (French and Portuguese Government), the British administration employed the use of force and guns on the Lagoon. This move eventually compelled the then King of Lagos: Oba Dosunmu to ceding his kingdom to the British.

THE YORUBA EXPEDITION: How the Yoruba region was captured.

By the treaty (of ceding) signed by the King, it meant that the Queen (from London) shall then control and administer the Port and Island of Lagos with all rights, profits and territories so as to assist, defend and protect the people of Lagos. This was the beginning of official colonialisation in the coast.

Although, the King (Oba Dosunmu) alongside his dynastic rival, Kosoko was rewarded with a pension scheme of £1030/year, he

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TRIBES AND CULTURE: THE IGBOMINA YORUBA RACE (In Kwara and Osun states) 2.

continued from https://muzzammilwrites.com/2017/05/02/tribes-and-culture-the-igbomina-yoruba-race-in-kwara-and-osun-state-1/

Igbomina logo

Administrative Head and control:

According to Afolayan (1998:77), it is not definitely known when the modern reign began. Local traditions emphasize the existence of the fairly well defined states in the area before the 19th century. Indeed, by the early 18th century many independent state structures could be identified. These included Omu-Aran, Omu-ipo, Ajase, Isanlu-Isin, Iwo, Edidi, Oro, Ora, Aun, Ikosin and Igbaja. Each of these possessed separate traditions of foundation and growth distinct from the Ila kingdom. It is out of these conglomerations that the modern Igbomina came into being. Most notable of these was the kingdom of Ila which is regarded to be the traditional head of the Igbomina race.

Akintoye (1971) informs thus:
“Among the Igbomina, the Orangun of Ila is regarded as something of a ‘father’ and the original inheritor from Ife of the land on which all the Igbomina later settled. Before coming to Ila, the seat of government of the Orangun had been established for brief periods in a number of localities, the best remembered of which are Oke-Ila and Ila-Yara. Probably in the sixteenth century and because of a dispute or famine, the centre of the kingdom was once again moved from the latter place to Ila under the leadership of Igbonnibi, a scion of the dynasty. The traditions say that because crops grown around Ila did much better than those grown around the older settlements, more and more people came to settle at Ila. In the end, therefore, Ila became a very large town.”

Apart from Ila headed by the Orangun (Oba Wahab Kayode Adedeji Oyedotun), some other kingdoms in the ethnic include:

Olomu of Omu-ipo Oba Yakub Adebayo Buhari. Continue reading

TRIBES AND CULTURE: THE IGBOMINA YORUBA RACE (In Kwara and Osun state) 1.

A statue of Orangun with the Ogbo.

BRIEF HISTORY OF IGBOMINA
The Igbomina or Igbonna is a distinct dialectal unit of the Yoruba race. The term ‘Igbomina’ or ‘Igbonna’ refers to the people and the land they occupy. They occupy the Northern part of the Yoruba geographic map.

Geographical location.
The Igbomina land is bounded on the North-West by Ilorin; on the South by the Ijesa, on the South-East by the Ekiti, on the East by the Yagba, and on the North by the non-Yoruba Nupe region South of the Niger River. Igbomina is bounded on the West by minor neighbouring communities: Ibolo, Offa, Oyan and Okuku in the West. Geographically, Igbominaland lies between longitude 40E and 60E and Latitude 80N and 90N.
Dominance.

The Igbominaland touches two Yoruba states in Nigeria (Kwara and Osun). It covers three Local Government areas (LGAs) in Kwara State: Irepodun, Ifelodun and Isin LGAs. In Osun, it touches two Local Government areas: Ila and Ifedayo LGAs. Igbomina is an epic traditional conglomeration. This commanding dominance is what is raising internal agitations by the indigenes of this community for a new state to be carved out of Kwara and Osun state.

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TRIBES AND CULTURE: ADIM PEOPLE (CROSS RIVER STATE)

Adim is a cultural community that refers to a set of people that occupy a certain quarter in Biase Local Government area in Cross river state, Nigeria. The Adim people speak Adim and Efik language. According to reports, Adim is spoken by about 16,000 speakers. The Adim community is administered by clan heads and are assisted by chiefs.

1.1. Historical Background of the Adim People

There is no general acceptability among the people of Adim as to their historical origin. Some people posit that their ancestors came from Otum Usa. Some others believe that they had dominated the present day location from time in inception negating the stance that they are ancient migrants into the community. This research based its scope on tracing the real source. However, after a prolonged attempt, we are able to arrive at the justification that Adim people are indeed migrants. The people of Adim’s initial origin is indeed located around Otum Usa settlement (Abi LGA) in Ebom-Ebijiakara on the Eastern bank of Cross river state. The migrants first settled at Orum-Ugom before finally pitching their tent in the present day Biase LGA.

Biase LGA,which is now the new abode of the Adim people, consist of the 3 basic Adim groups with diverse views about their origin:

i. The Isobo
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