In 1862, shortly after the abolition of slave trade off the Atlantic coast of Lagos and after gaining full dominance, in the order that they wade off potential hijackers (French and Portuguese Government), the British administration employed the use of force and guns on the Lagoon. This move eventually compelled the then King of Lagos: Oba Dosunmu to ceding his kingdom to the British.

THE YORUBA EXPEDITION: How the Yoruba region was captured.

By the treaty (of ceding) signed by the King, it meant that the Queen (from London) shall then control and administer the Port and Island of Lagos with all rights, profits and territories so as to assist, defend and protect the people of Lagos. This was the beginning of official colonialisation in the coast.

Although, the King (Oba Dosunmu) alongside his dynastic rival, Kosoko was rewarded with a pension scheme of £1030/year, he

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A Cross Representation of the Major tribes/ethnics in Nigeria

Justifiably, the creation work of the british administration in this part of the sub Saharan Africa over a century ago has not only suffered instability but also disunity. Nigeria has (and is still witnessing) series of events, actions and reactions. And like a seasoned movie, the end is not in sight.

These continual troubles have further raised issues and opinions as to whether the Fredrick Luggard’s hosted marriage was even a right bid. So far, the country is been torn apart by internal crisis, war, and hates speeches thereby threatening the nationhood.

Sir Hugh Clifford, the British colonial administrator and Governor General of Nigeria ( 1920 – 1931 ) after Fredrick Luggard, described Nigeria as “a collection of independent Native States, separated from one another by great distances , by differences of history and traditions and by ethnological, racial, tribal, political, social and religious barriers.” –Culled from James Smoot Coleman’s book, Nigeria (p. 194).

It is in this plight that this article wills to dig out solutions from the present ditch using sociolinguistics terms and some historical antecedents as it relates to the theme. The title has already given insights to the approach. First, we would understand the concepts of ‘Nationism and ‘Nationalism’. Then we forge ahead with other relevant concepts.

Nationism is the practical effort and services geared towards running and maintaining a nation. This means that, unlike the belief of some, nations are artificial creations. Therefore,

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Just as promised some weeks ago, the 8th Senate under the leadership of Senator Bukola Saraki is fulfilling the Constitutional amendment process. The senate is riding on an already established record of numerous bill passage within its first 2yrs of inauguration. Thus, it is making a giant stride with the constitution review considerations.

The Constitution review committee, as chaired by the Deputy Senate President Ike Ekweremadu, this week submitted 33 bills on the floor of the house for considerations. And we the use of the Electronic voting system (e-voting), 29 out of it were successfully passed yesterday.

Among the passed bills are the famous #nottoyoungtorun bill, Local government autonomy bill, restriction of tenure and financial autonomy of the states government.
Below is a breakdown, voting results, interpretations and status of each bill.

Bill 1: Amendment of the Members of the Council of States.
Interpretation: The Council of States which currently consists of the sitting President, living ex-presidents and the sitting Senate President and speaker should now include the ex-Senate president “provided that such a person was not removed from office by the process of impeachment”.

Votes: Continue reading

Nigerians Celebrates Oloyede: As JAMB Returns N5bn into the Government’s Treasure Account.

Prof. Ishaq Oloyede (JAMB Registrar)

Ever since the realization of the brave act on Friday (21 July), praises and encomiums from all works of life have continued to reach the Registrar of the Joint Admission and Matriculation Board (JAMB), Prof. Ishaq Oloyede. The formidable titan made history by returning a whooping N5 billion to the government’s treasury just within a year in charge. The N5billion is the remainder of the budget spent on the conduct and planning of this year’s examinations.

The JAMB Registrar achieved this feat due to his Administrative acumen after successfully conducting 2017 JAMB Examination. This constitutes a change in the status quo as JAMB used to be known before now to always beg Continue reading

TRIBES AND CULTURE: UBANG COMMUNITY~ where Men and Women speak distinct languages.

This week on Tribes and Culture, our voyage takes us more South as we cross so many rivers to reach the famous Obudu LGA in Crossriver state. Ubang is a little known rural community within the wider local government area of Obudu, in the northern region of the southeastern state of Crossriver. Muzzammilwrites brings to you their historical and socio-political profile. It was a wonderful experience from onset till finish. We were amazed not only at the sights and scenery but also at the tales and myth surrounding the creation of the wonderful community.

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people of Ubang.

Do you know that God himself visited this place? Yes, you heard it. Find out more in the report below.


As stated earlier, Ubang is a little known rural community within the wider local government area of Obudu, in the northern region of the southeastern state of Crossriver. One notable linguistic feature of this community is the presence of two separate speech varieties each of which is spoken distinctly by men and women. This simply means that the language of the men is quite different from that of the women in the community.

As at the time of this research, little effort has been made towards the documentation of historical antecedents of the origin of Ubang. Therefore, results gathered are based on comprehensive oral literature and mythical belief. Results claim that the people of Ubang have been existing for very long a time. Infact, one part of the myth has linked their origin to then biblical story of the Tower of Babel. According to this myth, the variation noticed in their language is as a result of the curse laid by God as covered in the story.

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Drawings of the Biblical Tower of Babel.

The sons of men were building a tower in their attempt to reach God’s abode, God frustrated the effort by waving them into confusion and misunderstanding. They were cursed to distinctly begin to speak different languages that they may not understand one another anymore. At the long run, the sons of man were not able to continue their mission; so the Tower collapsed. This story has been sighted for the differences in languages all over the world.

It was at this point of confusion that Ubang was allotted two languages. Some however claimed they were given two languages because they were the most stubborn sects amongst the sons of men at the time as they still route to continue the project.

Another myth surrounding the presence of two different forms of languages reads that after generally allotting one language each to every other community in the world, God was left with two different languages. He doesnt want to return (to Heaven) with leftover. So He gave Ubang the remaining two Instead of one each has he has done for the other communities. They also claim that God was standing on a high mountain (Okwe Asirikwe) within the community when He was sharing the languages. According to them this very very wide footpath seen on this Mountain is a clear sign that He once stood here. No theory or research has been able to unravel the source of the gigantic print. Therefore, it remains a mystery.  Some villagers go to this location to bow their heads in praise and worship to God.

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A replica of what form of print is on the mountain.

A village head at the time of this research, Chief Joseph Ale Iyiang, also narrates that the community was blessed with two languages because they were God’s first creation amongst men. He said “Ubang are the first creation of God by presumption because it is the only community, in the world, that has two languages”. He further related that they were more than the size they are at the moment. But due to some internal pressure, separation was necessary.

“…about 150 years ago, we were about 11 communities but today we are three communities because of inter-tribal squabbles’’.

In addition, he said the broke out communities disappeared and submerged into other neighboring communities. The communities that constitute the Ubang at present are Okweriseng, Ofambe and Okira.

The total population of the Ubang community is estimated to be 5400 (source: and the name of their language is Ubang.


The Ubang people are distinguished from others in their own way of life. Their culture is very rich and they believe so much in it. The language serves as a means of communication in the society, in the market and even in the religious system and it is also aimed at being a medium of expression and instruction in schools.

Below is a Map of Cross River Showing the Various Local Governments and the location of Obudu where Ubang can be found.


One unique thing about their culture so far is the linguistically present variety of their language where the language of the female inhabitant is different from that of the male yet they understand and communicate with themselves perfectly. Neighboring villages, who know about the development look at the people with the feeling of awe. Not even with the ego, style and pride at which they use to tell different versions of their stories of existence in order to justify their wonderful talent.

They boast that God loves them most and that is why he gave them two varieties. And they have no plan to merge or fuse the two varieties except if God comes down again to the spot where He handed them the language and directs otherwise. There is a claim that God, himself came down to earth and stood on a very high mountain when He was doing the distribution. Infact, they say His footpaths are still visible on the top of the mountain.

Worthy of note is the fact that every child, right from birth, knows he or she will have to learn and speak the language of his or her sex. Therefore, any attempt by the child to learn the version of the opposite sex will end up futile.

“If a female tries to speak the language of the male or vice versa, she will not be able because she will be confused and make a lot of mistakes”

An elderly woman in the village, Mary Orim, said the words that form the different versions of the language were given by God. Therefore, no version is superior to the other and each gender speaks the words as allotted to their version with pride and confidence.

            For example, men folks call;

  1. Water; ‘Amie’ while the female folks say ‘Banu’.
  2. Yam; is ‘ketung’ for men and ‘iri’ for women.
  • Stone; is ‘okai’ for men and ‘koka’ for women.
  1. Shirt; is ‘nki’ for men and ‘ariga’ for women.

She added that if a woman begins to speak like a man, no matter how hold she is, the women folk will laugh and ridicule her.

The name given to the men’s version is ‘ziebenche’ while that of the women’s is called ‘iziebenyinye’. In addition, speakers of the Ubang language are adjudged to be fast learners of other languages. They do understand the languages of even neighboring ethnic groups like Alege, Okpe, Bete, Boki, Ijagam, and Utugwang. Only that these neighboring villages might find it difficult understanding theirs.

Ubang people are proud of their culture and heritage. They are friendly and accommodating. They make a meal of their inheritance and guard it judiciously.


The Ubang people are mostly recognized with the Christianity religion. Based on statistics, about 65% of the community population is of the Christian faith while the remaining are traditionalist. The people of this community still depend more on herbal medicines for treatments. There is this nocturnal dreaded cult (ikwong) they operate which forbids non-indigenes and women from participating.


Language informants say that the people of Ubang still believe so much in traditional marriage even though they are majorly of the Christian faith.  Thus, their marriage rites still have some elements of traditionalism and culture heritage.


The major occupation of the Ubang people is cocoa farming. They practice commercial farming in the Ubang community.  Some of their farm products are; cocoa, rice, yam, e.t.c. The people of Ubang also practice trading.  They trade with their smelt product such as Anklets, bracelets, local necklace, cutlasses, iron weapons, knives, plates, hoes and pot. They trade with the neigbouring community and all their products are involved in their trading. However, the community experience lack of transport-able roads which is more reason why travelers and tourists less visit the community.

We are glad you enjoyed it. More content will be uploaded about the general administrative style and language. Tribes and Culture (an initiative of Muzzammilwrites) will keep you informed and entertained with knowledge across the Nigerian tribes and community. Our voyage will be taking us through another tribe nextweek. Anticipate…

Goethe (Germanphilosopher) said “if you desire to be more knowledgeable than the others, then travel”.



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Nigerian tribes and culture

Culture regards the arts, ideas, customs, language, religion, intellectual development and also the social behavior of a particular group of people. In this vein, it is a standard aphorism that every tribe, ethnic or society has its own unique and peculiar features. This, amongst others, is a criterion for establishing affinity and relationship between social groups and community.

Nigeria has been established to have over 250 tribes/ethnic groups across its 36 states. Yoruba, Hausa, Igbo being unarguably the largest by population and outreach. In this vein, this blog site has always promised to enrich you with enlightening information. Therefore, We decide to premier another educational writing series –Thus: Tribes and Culture.

Tribes and Culture will go all round the country in search of cultural and historical facts about the various ethnic groups in Nigeria. In a scintillating fashion, the findings together with recommendation will be showcased on this platform on a weekly base. Therefore, prepare to be nourished.

You should also note that you can suggest for places, tribes, and ethnics you will want the crew to visit next and be sure of it being look into. This can be done by dropping them in the comment boxes under each post.

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akoko edo map.

The premier edition of Tribes and Culture features the Enwan people of the Akoko-Edo region of Edo state. Read and enjoy.



No to Tribalism

Before you read further, ask yourself this questions:

–Who are You?
–Where do you hail from?

I would expect your response to the second question to carry FIRST your Nationality before giving necessary and unnecessary details of your tribe. If not, then I think you are part of the problem. Read further to see reasons.
Tribalism and nepotism (or ethnicity as you may which to call it) has been the canker-worm disturbing our vegetables of unity and, if not treated, can lead us through that path of disintegration. Sometime ago, the President (Muhammadu Buhari) asserted in one of his speeches that the oneness of this nation is Non negotiable. Well, I think the Nation, Nigeria, needs restructuring. But (anyways) that’s a topic for another day.

Whether or not we want to negotiate it, tribalism needs to be killed. Tribalism is a political anomaly. According to Wikipedia online encyclopedia, tribalism is a state of being organized in, or advocating for, a tribe or tribes. It is also seen as a behavioral defunct where people are more loyal to their tribes than to their friends, country or other social groups. Relating it to Nigeria (the most populous Black nation with a massive representation of tribes and language), it is of no doubt present. People are seen associating with and protecting their various ethnic groups in the political setting.

However, this concept isnt to strange to us. Instances of it can be traced to activities of our founding fathers even before the independence. We had the first crop of Continue reading